This appendix presents Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for tracking progress on Strategies. It also details other technical information gathered and used throughout the report alongside assumptions made in the measurement of Clearwater Greenprint 2.0 Strategies. Each Strategy’s Implementation and Measurement Methodologies is assigned a timeframe for completion based on the section 3, Target Timelines.
During the creation of Clearwater Greenprint 2.0, Clearwater staff serving on the Sustainability and Resilience Committee were asked to fill out a short survey to better understand the city’s priorities and capacities for improving Clearwater’s response to climate change in the next 30 years.
The survey consisted of the following questions:
- Which of these activities do you think will have the greatest positive impact on the city of Clearwater? (Choose your Top 3)
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of public outreach and education activities related to sustainability.
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of training certain staff on sustainable practices.
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of updating codes and other regulating documents (not including implementation).
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of upgrading, rehabilitating, or replacing any municipal infrastructure or equipment to a more energy efficient or environmentally friendly standard.
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of coordinating programs and outreach in collaboration with local and regional agencies/organizations.
- Using the scale below, rate the cost and benefit of applying for and managing grants.
- Please select the primary activity you are involved in.
Staff’s responses to these questions are summarized in Table II.1 and Figure II.1 below. Staff’s input and budget documentation were used to estimate the costs and benefits of strategies based on their Core Topics.
The Implementation and Implementation and Measurement Methodologies contained in this report are based on the following overarching assumptions:
- Annual budget allocations to various departments will remain the same,
- The relative cost and benefit rating assigned by staff to each action reflects the typical scope for their department or division, and
- Staff will review the recommendations contained in this Appendix and draft a final budget for the accomplishment of the monitoring methodologies contained within this report.
In addition to the foregoing assumptions and limitations, Implementation and Measurement Methodologies outlined in all Core Topics may necessitate legal review which should occur prior to any budgetary appropriations, applications for grant funding, or any similar expenditure associated with the recommendations set forth in this document. To ensure the health and safety of city staff and attendees, all activities involving gatherings of people described in this document will abide by pertinent health advisories in effect in addition to applicable state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations.
Table II.1. Top Priority Areas Ranked by Vote Count
|Public Outreach and Education
|Green Energy and Buildings
|Transportation and Accessibility
|Planning and Building
|"Green" Economic Development
|Easy Access to Food Locally
Education and Awareness
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for Education and Awareness Core Topic Strategies. Categorization of the relative cost and benefit of the Education and Awareness Core Topic Strategies is provided in
Figure II.2. Administrative and Social Strategies. Strategies in this graphic represent a grouping of Strategies considered to be within similar range of cost to implement. In addition to Education and Awareness, the graphic includes strategies from Green Energy and Buildings, Livability, Local Food, and Green Economy.
Strategies within the Education and Awareness Core Topic are largely limited by budgetary allocation and staff hours and consist of programming and data management. The proposed strategies assume the city of Clearwater’s willingness to establish programs, create and maintain databases, launch information collection campaigns, and take other necessary measures to implement the actions described in this section. Feasibility of implementation would be established after budget and hour allocation is determined by staff. Once this occurs, metrics such as number of attendees, number of registrants, attendee demographics, number of downloads, clicks, or website traffic may be used to gauge the success of activities.
5.1 Mission Statement (Short-Term)
- Write or re-write mission statement for city of Clearwater to include environmental commitment.
- Incorporate the mission statement into the local government’s comprehensive plan.
5.2 Community Education (Short-Term)
A. Promote education through publications and public events
- Set timeline goals and publication schedules for commencement of reports and conduct workshops.
- Layout publication schedule and publication format.
- Workshops should be held online, quarterly, covering a two-year schedule. Upon completion, the workshop cycle should repeat.
B. Provide pertinent local GIS and other data online
- Develop and maintain a geographically referenced databases of buildings (including building age), gas transmission lines, wastewater lines, and septic tank locations.
- Use these data to inform and direct implementation programs.
5.3 Community Outreach (Short-Term)
A. Develop new events that engage the community in sustainability through fun and innovative activities
5.4 Youth Programs (Short-Term)
A. Continue youth education programs to educate students about resource conservation
5.5 Municipal Staff Education (Short-Term)
A. Organize ongoing educational workshops and presentations to keep staff and elected officials up to date on sustainability initiatives and opportunities
- Integrate programming with Strategy 5.1 and use the same materials and metrics with some modification to limit duplication of efforts.
B. Integrate sustainable practices into daily operations and serve as ambassadors and educators about city sustainability programs and projects in daily interactions with the public
- Designate staff to spend at least one hour per month participating in these activities.
- Appropriate staff will complete one continuing education unit (CEU)-approved course in green buildings on a bi-annual basis.
- Provide re-usable mugs or water bottles to all employees.
- Include the city’s commitment to the environment in new employee orientation.
5.6 Continuous Reporting (Short-Term)
A. Continuously measure, evaluate, and address both mitigation and adaptation progress in accordance with ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, USA Five Milestones for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
- Prepare a reporting calendar schedule and incorporate it into the Strategy 5.1 reporting schedule.
5.7 Resilience Planning and Outreach (Short-Term)
A. Form a Resilience Committee comprised of city staff and community partners
- The Resilience Committee shall be comprised of representatives from departments involved in planning and zoning, utilities, and transportation.
B. Initiate a vulnerability assessment throughout the Clearwater area to identify the factors most at risk to climate change stressors
- Coordinate this strategy with Strategy 5.1. and report on committee structure as well as the communications program within one year following establishment.
C. Formulate a Climate Action Plan to address each of the vulnerabilities identified and further direct the city’s resilience work
- The Sustainability and Resilience Committee will assess risks using climate change data sources such as IPCC sea level rise scenarios and advanced hurricane planning incidence and intensity under climate change/global warming scenarios.
- The city of Clearwater will develop digital mapping and modeling capability either in-house or through an outside consultant to assess risk in 1-2 years.
- In the 1-2 years adoption of Clearwater Greenprint 2.0, the city of Clearwater will develop a Climate Action Plan.
Green Energy & Buildings
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies Green Energy and Building Core Topic Strategies. Refer to Figure II.2.- Administrative and Social Strategies for the categorization of the relative cost and benefit of each Green Energy and Buildings Core Topic Strategy. The Green Energy and Buildings Implementation and Measurement Methodologies pivots on several assumptions, mainly that the approval process for each project is informed by its financial feasibility (“project pro-forma”) as well as fiscal impact analyses under two conditions: one with the proposed climate change mitigation measure and one without. Furthermore, it is assumed that prior to undertaking other actions, the city of Clearwater will first conduct an inventory of municipal buildings and assess their conditions, and that the city has agency to make improvements to the municipal buildings they seek to retrofit. Additionally, following completion of the building inventory, the city will set targets for retrofits or new construction and assign specific costs.
Costs and subsequent budgetary appropriations may be based on a wide variety of metrics including the following publicly available data sources:
- Pinellas County Property Appraiser Records,
- U.S. Census Data, and
- American Community Survey Estimates.
6.1 PACE – Energy Finance Program (Short-Term)
A. Partner with public and private organizations to establish an energy finance program
- Form a special district or financing district to enable Property Assessed Clean Energy program (PACE) partnerships on non-residential properties.
- Staff will use the U.S. Census-based residential characteristics inventory to assess costs and average level of energy efficiency upgrades needed per residential unit.
- Staff will set the financial amount the city will provide to seed and support building rehabilitation finance.
6.2 Resource Conservation Program (Short-Term)
A. Develop and implement a program that performs comprehensive energy evaluations, recommends conservation practices and upgrades, provides basic information on financing options, and measures the environmental and economic benefits after implementation
- Coordinate with electric and water utilities to enhance, supplement existing programs.
- Measure monthly kilowatt hours (kWh) or gallons per day (GPD) usage before and after conservation implementation at the user level.
Track historic usage and set future consumption targets.
6.3 Incentives for Upgrades (Short-Term)
A. Implement a “feebate” program
- Coordinate this Strategy with Strategies 6.1 and 6.2.
- Track, measure, and record annual funding occurring in the feebate program.
6.4 Performance Standards (Short-Term)
A. Encourage and assist developers in incorporating green building practices and standards into their design, construction, maintenance, and operations plans
- Strengthen, enhance, update, and upgrade Comprehensive Plan and land development regulations applicable to new construction.
B. Encourage the use of national building performance standards
- Provide funding and PACE options for retrofits in redevelopment.
6.5 Natural Gas Expansion (Short-Term)
A. Continued offering of programs by Clearwater Gas System to increase the number of residents and businesses using natural gas to power appliances
- Provide funding incentives for new hookups.
- Update digital system maps for gas availability.
- Determine program for system expansion if warranted.
- Determine if there are efficiency ratings and retrofit standards and potential for existing gas appliances similar to home heating A/C units.
6.6 Local Power Generation (Medium-Term)
A. Request proposals from private companies to design, build, install and operate small-scale energy generation facilities that can utilize available resources to generate electricity and/or heat
- Enable zoning laws to allow small scale solar facilities on site, or integrated with new construction.
- Identify suitable sites of 400 acres to accommodate small scale solar plants.
6.7 Renewable Energy Challenge (Short-Term)
A. Preparation of a marketing and outreach campaign challenging property owners to install renewable energy technologies
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1 and 6.1.
B. Support code changes that remove obstacles to installing renewable energy systems
- Identify code-based obstacles.
- Validate obstacles with energy providers.
- Develop a plan to revise municipal codes.
C. Provide information to assist residents with purchasing renewable energy equipment
- Identify renewable energy equipment suppliers.
- Verify and certify suppliers through Chamber of Commerce
- Help fund an information program and include verified suppliers in workshop and outreach presentations.
D. Include information about local, state, and federal incentives, economic and environmental benefits, contact information for local contractors, financing options
E. Create a website that allows the Clearwater community to submit property information and view addresses where renewable energy systems have been installed
- Obtain client lists from local renewable energy suppliers.
6.8 Renewable Energy Finance (Short-Term)
A. Investigate financing mechanisms for expanding renewable energy generation
6.9 Energy Efficient Streetlights (Short-Term)
A. Request conversion of all Duke Energy-owned electric streetlights to LED
- Negotiate a municipal rate reduction or rebate to finance LED streetlight conversion.
- Coordinate with Clearwater-owned public lighting.
6.10 Municipal Energy Management Program and Policy (Short-Term)
A. Partner with a third-party company to create an energy savings program including staff training and web-based energy consumption tracking, and benchmarking for municipal buildings
- Develop public database of municipal buildings to provide comprehensive energy consumption data.
B. Develop a formal energy management policy for city buildings and operations
- Within 1-3 years of commencement, conduct engineering assessment of all municipal buildings to evaluate energy savings potential from windows, insulation, lighting, ventilation, temperature, plant/AC efficiency ratings/harmful refrigerant use, and water usage.
- Design comprehensive custom energy management program.
- Create an Energy Manager position to administer the formal energy management policy and related municipal programs such as that described in Strategy 6.12.
6.11 Municipal Re-Commissioning Plan (Short-Term)
A. Establish a re-commissioning plan to inspect, test, and make proper adjustments at regularly scheduled intervals to optimize the performance of its buildings and equipment
- Coordinate with Strategy 6.10.
B. Create an LED lightbulb conversion program for city buildings
- Inventory all light fixtures in all city buildings by indicating the type of bulb or fixture.
C. Train key staff that do not have the appropriate skills to test the equipment
- Design a preventative maintenance program to replace existing non-LED bulbs (and fixtures if necessary) with LEDs.
- Estimate the total cost of replacement and track total cost saving from reduced operational costs following LED installation for 10 years.
D. Identify any environmentally harmful refrigerants in its operations and phase them out as part of its re-commissioning process (see Green Energy and Buildings Strategy #11)
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 6.10.
6.12 Municipal Performance Standard (Short-Term)
A. Build all new municipal facilities to a nationally recognized high-level performance standard (e.g., Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Florida Green Building Coalition, and Energy Star)
- Update and modernize building code standards. Include resiliency and performance standards which may exceed national standards due to specific local conditions such as humidity, sun, or salt.
6.13 Resilient Infrastructure (Short-Term)
A. Existing and new infrastructure complies with comprehensive resilience guidelines and the recommendations provided by the Tampa Bay Regional Resiliency Coalition
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 6.10.
B. Prioritize resilience upgrades in capital and operational budgets
- Estimate capital cost of resilience upgrades.
- Estimate damage avoidance over 20 years and operational efficiency cost savings from resilience upgrades.
C. Create educational materials and events for the public to improve the adaptive capacity of their own buildings, structures, and properties.
- Coordinate with Strategies 5.1 and 5.2.
D. Explore grant opportunities for municipal photovoltaic and energy storage for critical building infrastructure (e.g., emergency shelters, schools, cooling centers, and nursing or assisted-living homes) to protect vulnerable populations and reduce GHG emissions
- As part of any update to the city’s Comprehensive Plan, identify two medium to large scale inundation, drainage, and floodwater storage projects which will protect surrounding structures from floods; storage projects may be passive recreational areas when dry.
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for Transportation Core Topic Strategies. Categorization of the relative cost and benefit of the Transportation Core Topic Strategies is provided in Figure II.3.- Transportation Strategies. For Implementation and Measurement Methodologies in this Core Topic it is assumed that sufficient permissions to alter county, state, and federal roads will be attained from the appropriate governing agencies and that work carried out will be consistent with other governing documents, including the city’s existing Complete Streets Plan. Major limitations to implementation of Strategies within this Core Topic are eliciting widespread behavioral change for use of alternative modes of transportation to achieve Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT) reduction targets, and anticipated major structural changes, including adoption of electric vehicles, remote work, or autonomous vehicles. These changes affect the goals identified by Clearwater Greenprint 2.0 in many ways, including by reducing gas tax revenue used for roadway infrastructure improvements, and changing the metrics (e.g., VMT) by which greenhouse gas emissions are typically measured.
7.1 Vehicle Mile Reduction (Short-Term)
A. Launch a VMT reduction campaign
- Build a representative database of total VMT over time on municipal streets based on summation of selected municipal traffic counts.
- Illustrate average annual VMT growth rates.
- Undertake program of study to reduce annual VMT growth.
- Adopt strategies; implement plan.
- Measure and track annual change in VMT.
B. Reduce city-wide VMT by 10%
- Specify how VMT is calculated from mass transit or carpool modes as well as reductions due to trends in remote work.
C. Launch an internal VMT reduction program for employees
- Specify employee rules and standards for work from home. Reference San Mateo County’s Office of Sustainability “Telework & Flex-Schedules Toolkit” as a resource for support and guidance.
- Build out IT capacity to support remote work.
7.2 Complete Streets Policy (Short-Term)
7.3 Local Transit Improvement (Short-Term)
B. Collaborate with the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) to improve bus scheduling
C. Explore and encourage alternative forms of public transportation (e.g., Bus Rapid Transit, carpool, car share, bike share, scooter share, and ferry services)
- Enhance mobility-related zoning and municipal codes to accommodate alternative modes of transportation regarding parking and land use.
- Implement a mobility impact fee to replace transportation impact fees through year five of implementation.
7.4 Low Emission Vehicles (Short-Term)
A. Support construction of infrastructure for low-to-zero emission vehicles
- Develop charging station installation fees to assess total program costs to provide for EV fleet.
B. Continue to install public EV charging stations
C. Change the Community Development Code to require charging stations for electric vehicles for new development and adopt “EV ready” policies
- Determine the percentage of residents driving electric/hybrid or low emissions vehicles.
D. Host a minimum of one event per year at which the public is encouraged to try an electric vehicle
- Partner with nearby auto sales dealerships or the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy for an electric vehicle test drive event.
E. Partner with an organization such as the Sierra Club or Southern Alliance for Clean Energy to create an event that encourages residents and businesses to shift to hybrid electric vehicles
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 5.1 and 5.2.
7.5 Municipal Fleet Conversion (Medium-Term)
A. Adopt a Green Fleet Policy to govern use and procurement of fleet vehicles
- Assign Green Fleet program development to the Fleet Manager.
- Develop the Green Fleet Policy within two years of the Greenprint 2.0 plan adoption.
- The Green Fleet Policy or Program will include the following: Inventory of fleet, identification of repair/replace cycle, development of fleet replacement costs, and identification of time frames for replacement.
- Coordinate with the current policy study being undertaken by the city.
- Fleet transition should be completed by 2035 or 2050 per the current assessment.
B. Investigate financing mechanisms to offset cost of fleet conversion (e.g., vehicle leasing and federal tax credit)
- Within three years following adoption of Clearwater Greenprint 2.0, identify replacement cost and review finance options with Financial Advisor.
C. Increase the share of municipal light-duty vehicles running on alternative fuels
- All municipal light-duty vehicles will run on alternative fuels by 2040.
7.6 Congestion Management (Medium-Term)
A. Manage traffic congestion by considering alternative intersection designs
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3.
B. Continue to include roundabouts in new road construction projects
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3.
C. Consider use of other congestion management practices
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3.
7.7 Municipal Telecommuting Policy (Short-Term)
A. Increase the alternative work schedule and telecommuting opportunities available to city workforce
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 7.1.
- Support alternative work schedule and telecommuting opportunities by expanding IT capability to include secure remote access for employees to internal city networks.
B. Encourage virtual meetings in lieu of in-person meetings requiring travel by automobile whenever possible
- State policy requires some public meetings to be in-person only; lobby to update the state mandate for in-person meetings.
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for Livability Core Topic Strategies. Categorization of the relative cost and benefit of the Livability Core Topic Strategies is provided in Figure II.2.- Administrative and Social Strategies. Similar to the Green Energy and Buildings Core Topic area, Strategies within the Livability Core Topic area pivot on the assumption that the approval process for each project is informed by its financial feasibility (“project pro-forma”) as well as fiscal impact analyses under two conditions: one with the proposed climate change mitigation measure and one without. In addition to this, it is also assumed that the city will measure equity and inclusion.
Though this consideration applies to all Strategies within the Clearwater Greenprint 2.0, issues of equity and inclusion are particularly relevant for those of the Livability Core Topic area. This is because most of the area’s Strategies involve improvements that typically occur in small geographic areas (e.g., new construction and building retrofits) and are likely to affect historically under-resourced populations. To measure equity, the city will define measures that quantify the qualitative aspects of livability. To this end, factors such as aesthetics, and emotion may be monitored by way of routine survey of the city’s stakeholders (e.g., residents, workers, and business-owners). Surveys may ask stakeholders to rate their levels of satisfaction with city services, or the physical condition of the built environment.
8.1 Development Incentives (Short-Term)
A. Continue to provide for mixed-use development in livable, transit-oriented neighborhoods
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 5.6, 6.4, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.12.
B. Improve regulation, investment, and incentives that will fulfill residents’ household and transportation needs
- Coordinate with Strategy 6.1 and evaluate and specify finance mechanism such as revolving loan or letter of credit support amounts city will provide.
8.2 Property Revitalization (Short-Term)
A. Encourage restoration and reuse of buildings as an alternative to demolition
- Strengthen and update local codes to shift redevelopment toward these goals.
- Where demolition is unavoidable, encourage deconstruction of buildings and subsequent reuse and recycling of building materials.
B. Maintain the historic designation process to ensure that historically significant properties and neighborhoods remain stable, well-maintained, and available for long-term use
- Measure potential savings from historic designation.
- Consider conducting a cost benefit analysis through literature search or direct analysis to determine if there are property value increases due to historic designation and carbon footprint savings from rehabilitation vs demolition and reconstruction.
- Conduct pro-forma analysis and fiscal impact analysis to determine profitability and fiscal revenue conditions of proposed project.
- Employ Public Private Partnership (P3) mechanisms to help assure minimum profitability standards to help assure project financial viability.
- Employ tax increment financing (TIF) capture, synthetic sales tax, or other mechanisms to help offset costly capital requirements; thereby helping assure project financial viability.
C. Continue to implement a brownfield program and identify incentives such as tax credits for brownfield and greyfield development
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 6.1.
D. Consider partnership with an educational institution or non-profit organization to demonstrate the benefits of compost in a pilot program or through a publication
- Identify 10 pilot compost sites and provide bins, scales and operational instruction to weigh and measure compost material by volume to illustrate weight and volume metrics of landfill savings per home.
- Track data and report in educational outreach events.
- Pursue financial incentives to offset some of the cost of brownfield remediation and promote reuse of land.
- Where remediation is needed, consider the addition of compost as an amendment to disturbed land.
8.3 Diverse Housing Options (Short-Term)
A. Continue to create a self-sustaining community and local economy to reduce VMT and increase accessibility
- Inventory vacant land and target areas for mixed use options as part of any future updates to the city’s Comprehensive Plan.
8.4 Greenspace Expansion (Short-Term)
A. Support and expand the community’s capacity to manage, develop, and enhance greenspace for natural habitat, recreation, gardening, and outdoor education activities
- Incentivize or supplement beach re-nourishment.
- Improve and maintain public property.
- Create P3s to transition underutilized land to greenspace.
- Encourage provision of greenspace on private property through public policy and programs.
8.5 Urban Tree Program and Canopy Target (Short-Term)
A. Continue to host an annual tree giveaway
- Create partnership with the Audubon Society, Arbor Day Foundation, or other similar organizations to create a tree inventory for a tree giveaway program.
B. Develop a program to educate community members on the benefits of planting trees and recognize residents and businesses that participate
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1.
C. Assess current tree canopy and set an increased canopy goal based on assessment results
- Coordinate and review tree policy with Pinellas County.
D. Create an implementation plan to increase tree canopy coverage
- See Strategy 8.5.F below.
E. Require mitigation for consumption of natural habitat or resources
- Identify active land bank mitigation sales in Florida.
- Engage in transfer and sale program with existing mitigation land banks; obtain cost of land bank mitigation credits.
- Review city land development code and based on review, amend code to require mitigation as part of the development code.
F. Enact and enforce a tree preservation or land-clearing ordinance
- Hire a municipal arborist to manage the tree inventory and the preservation, recommendation of mitigation and maintain GHG mitigation and carbon sequestration data.
G. Pilot a forest carbon sequestration project on municipal land which will sequester carbon to offset a portion of the community’s annual GHG emissions
- Calculate GHG savings per 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 trees.
- Consider differences in tree species and growing zones.
- Develop a planting program under an existing urban forestry project protocol to allow for recording and reporting the results.
8.6 Environmental Conservation (Short-Term)
A. Become a certified community under National Wildlife Federation Wildlife Habitat Program
- Take the National Wildlife Federation Mayor’s Monarch Pledge
B. Enact a sea turtle ordinance
C. Create an endangered lands conservation/purchasing program
- Coordinate with Strategies 8.3 and 11.3 to identify and evaluate lands with high environmental or conservation value.
D. Promote eco-literacy
- Create programs to increase awareness of regional flora and fauna as well as the importance of natural resource preservation.
- Build on existing partnerships with local organizations (e.g., the Clearwater Marine Aquarium, Florida Native Plant Society, Audubon Society, and Tampa Bay Estuary Program).
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 5.1, and 8.5.
8.7 Integrated Pest Management (Short-Term)
A. Create an IPM plan address invasive species and problematic insects at city-owned properties
- Provide guidance on non-native, invasive plants and species as well as a detailed plan for removal and/or management of such species.
- Emphasize non-toxic options and consider potential expansion of invasive species due to climate change.
- Coordinate implementation with the University of Florida IFAS Extension Office.
B. Provide the public with educational materials concerning invasive species identification and IPM best practices
C. Consider partnership with an educational institution (e.g., Saint Petersburg College of the University of South Florida) to develop of an IPM plan and subsequent educational outreach
8.8 Energy Efficient Streets and Parking (Short-Term)
A. Develop street design standards that maximize energy efficiency and minimize heat
- Coordinate with any future amendments to the city’s Comprehensive Plan’s Transportation Element.
- Document cost differentials for capital and maintenance, changes in materials use, cost offsets with embedded solar panels, or integrated traffic flow technology.
8.9 Environmental Justice (Short-Term)
A. Explore options for preventing excessive levels of pollution and mitigate environmental and other impacts such as noise, odor, and traffic in low-income communities and communities of color
B. Include potential environmental and public health impacts of land use decisions into planning and zoning activities
- Conduct literature review and analysis of issues and costs surrounding environmental justice.
- Identify applicable concerns in Clearwater within 1 year of authorization.
C. Prioritize affordable housing for historically displaced groups to prevent green gentrification
- Develop Environmental Justice plan 2-3 years following authorization.
D. Consider measures to ensure that rent in improved neighborhoods remains affordable and savings from energy efficiency improvements are passed on to tenants
- Allocate up to $250,000-$400,000 over the span of two years to undertake zoning and land use code updates in transportation, energy, development, reuse, and environmental justice.
- Coordinate updates to land use and zoning regulations with Strategies 6.4, 6.14, 7.3, and 8.3.
E. Assess current city zoning and land-use policies to determine where environmental justice criteria can be incorporated
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for the Water Conservation Core Topic Strategies. Categorization of the relative cost and benefit of the Water Conservation Core Topic Strategies is provided in Figure II.4.- Water Conservation and Waste Reduction Strategies. For Implementation and Measurement Methodologies in this Core Topic it is assumed that sufficient permissions to alter water utility infrastructure have been obtained from the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) or other regulating entity. Any improvements are presumed to be based on gathered data as well as the project pro-forma and fiscal impact analysis.
9.1 Water Conservation (Short-Term)
A. Continue to encourage water conservation in homes, businesses and industries
- Coordinate with Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and the SWFWMD to establish new rules, determine consumption rates, water use per capita, and water sources for the city.
- Coordinate regulatory costs and compliance thresholds with water utility.
- Prepare finance plan for consumption compliance.
B. Continue to consider changes to water use regulations and fees on an annual basis
- Inventory residential plumbing conditions based on US Census data.
- Coordinate with Strategy 6.1 to measure average plumbing requirements for existing inventory of structures.
- Continue to evaluate rate restructuring options to promote water conservation.
C. Encourage residents and businesses to adopt water conservation standards such as Florida Water Star for existing and new construction
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1.
D. Consider developing year-round water restrictions that are more stringent than Southwest Florida Water Management District restrictions
9.2 Waterwise Landscapes (Short-Term)
A. Use code-based incentives (e.g., accelerated site plan review time) to encourage community members to create landscapes at the same time as new development or redevelopment that integrate water saving measures
- Promote widespread adoption of Florida Friendly Landscape Principles.
B. Promote and facilitate neighborhood-based projects that train residents on Florida-Friendly landscaping practices
- Coordinate and incorporate information on best practices with Strategy 5.1.
C. Partner with neighborhoods and local organizations to recognize existing Florida-Friendly yards and highlight effective and affordable xeriscaping techniques
- Coordinate and incorporate information on best practices with Strategy 5.1.
9.3 Low-Impact Development (Short-Term)
B. Create guidance for private property owners to develop and implement rainwater collection plans
- Rely on existing rainwater harvesting programs such as that implemented in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
C. Increase awareness of co-benefits of low-impact development
- Incorporate concepts into Strategy 5.1.
D. Consider installations that capture, retain and treat stormwater runoff from parking lots, driveways and roads
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for the Waste Reduction Core Topic Strategies. Categorization of the relative cost and benefit of the Waste Reduction Core Topic Strategies is provided in Figure II.4.- Water Conservation and Waste Reduction Strategies. For Implementation and Measurement Methodologies in this Core Topic, it is assumed that sufficient permissions to establish or alter recycling and waste disposal service agreements have been obtained from pertinent regulating entities. Any improvements are presumed to be based on gathered data as well as the project pro-forma and fiscal impact analysis.
10.1 Yard Waste Collection (Short-Term)
A. Continue to offer yard waste collection to residents, encourage more households to participate, and investigate opportunities for collection of other organic waste such as food waste for composting
- Institute a survey of the number of pickups per month, per season.
- Gather dump statistics for the monthly weight of yard waste collected to determine household participation rates.
10.2 Continuation of Recycling Program (Short-Term)
A. Continue to offer recycling services to residents and businesses
- Continue the City’s existing recycling program.
- Focus on waste reduction and promote composting.
- Determine efficiencies and service expansion opportunities.
- Enable customers to make online bill payments or utilize recycled paper.
10.3 Backyard Composting Program (Short-Term)
- Continue providing access to the virtual Clearwater Creates Compost course
- Hold an annual compost bin pick up event for residents
10.4 Commercial Composting (Short-Term)
A. Develop a pilot composting program to divert food scraps from landfills and demonstrate the viability of a city-wide program
- Target the city’s commercial sector initially with preference for high-volume generators of food waste (e.g., hospitals, schools, hotels, and restaurants) for on-site or collection composting programs.
- Monitor participation rates, challenges, benefits, and costs.
- Consider expanding the study to collecting and processing food waste from select neighborhoods in the residential sector.
- Determine food scrap versus vegetable/non-meat composting requirements.
- Identify compost dump sites for site development or contract with an existing facility.
- Maintain a monthly data base with material tonnage.
10.5 Trash to Trends Event (Short-Term)
A. Organize an annual community event for swapping reusable goods to divert reusable goods from the solid waste stream
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1.
10.6 Municipal Waste Reduction Policy (Short-Term)
A. Adopt formal waste reduction policy and goals that address ocean-friendly recycling and printing practices
- Build a database tracking all waste by type, volume and weight based on waste removal services estimates under current contract.
- Determine average monthly levels.
- Set waste reduction targets and strategies by type and measurement.
B. Consider development of standards for events held on municipal sites to reduce waste generation, consumption of single-use plastics, and increase recycling by thousands of eventgoers per year
- Estimate the cost of waste removal, recycle value of waste material, and value of waste savings.
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for the Local Food Topic area Strategies. Refer to Figure II.2.- Administrative and Social Strategies for the categorization of the relative cost and benefit of each Green Energy and Buildings Core Topic Strategy. The Local Food Implementation and Measurement Methodologies assume that the approval process for each project is informed by the project pro-forma as well as fiscal impact analysis. Similar to the Livability Core Topic area, measurement of equity is a primary consideration of this topic area. To this end, measurement of access to quality local food is assumed. Access may be measured through a variety of means, and data on the subject may be obtained from the following public and open-source data sources:
- United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (refer to the Food Access Research Atlas)
- Property Appraiser Records
- U.S. Census Data
- American Community Survey Estimates
- Open Street Map
11.1 Urban Agriculture Task Force (Short-Term)
A. Organize and facilitate a task force to assist in developing and implementing recommendations for expanding local food production
- Create an educational campaign organized by the task force to bolster awareness and use of existing initiatives that promote local food consumption.
- Within the first year of Strategy implementation, create an Urban Agriculture Task Force.
- Within the second year of Strategy implementation, develop a local farm to table plan.
B. Develop partnerships among non-profits, ministries, neighborhood associations, and private interests to increase local food production and commerce, funding opportunities, and pooling of resources
C. Leverage partnerships to obtain grant funding for planning and project start-up activities
11.2 Local Food Production (Short-Term)
A. Define “local” in the context of food production and the community’s needs
B. Develop a “foodshed program”, “Buy Fresh Buy Local”, in collaboration with regional partners to increase availability of local foods
- Identify sites for a municipal farm and local farmers market.
- Inventory and prepare a database of local growers and food producers.
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1 and the local University of Florida IFAS Extension Office.
11.3 Urban Agriculture (Short-Term)
A. Conduct an inventory of public and semi-public lands that would be suitable for food production for the purpose of identifying sites for food production pilot projects
- Coordinate with Strategies 6.4, 8.3 and 8.9 as part of any future updates to the city’s Comprehensive Plan.
B. Amend the Community Development Code to allow and support community gardens and other forms of urban agriculture
- Incorporate hydroponics or other types of food production facilities into new and existing buildings.
- Undertake the amendment as part of municipal code evaluation and update.
- Coordinate with considerable code review and updates in Strategies 6.4, 6.7, 6.12, 7.3, 7.4, 8.1, 8.5, 8.9, 9.2, and 9.3.
11.4 Community Garden Grant Program (Short-Term)
A. Create a Community Garden Grant Program
- Coordinate implementation with Strategies 5.1 and 5.2.
- Consider co-locating community gardens with farmer’s market locations.
- Following the launch of the program in 2020, track stakeholders and provide staff assistance/guidance help with grant applications.
11.5 Climate Friendly Food Policy (Short-Term)
A. Encourage staff and residents to eat a plant-rich meal at least once a week
B. Integrate climate-friendly food procurement guidelines into the Green Procurement Policy
C. Consider a resolution in support of “Meatless Mondays”
The following section provides the Implementation and Measurement Methodologies for the Green Economy Core Topic area Strategies. Refer to Figure II.2.- Administrative and Social Strategies for the categorization of the relative cost and benefit of each Green Economy Core Topic Strategy. The Green Economy Implementation and Measurement Methodologies assume that the approval process for each project is informed by the project pro-forma as well as fiscal impact analysis. It should be noted that prior to commencement of work, a formal definition of “green jobs” should be established by staff; in the process, a distinction should be made between “green jobs” and “green industry.” Actions to promote green jobs should be based on a database generated based on staff’s definition.
12.1 Green Business Database (Short-Term)
A. Develop a database of green businesses and the number and types of green jobs within the city
- Collect data through surveys, online business searches, and phone interviews with the development community and industry organizations.
- Consider using the Business Tax Receipt application and renewal process to facilitate data collection.
- Use municipal business license records to expand data fields to classify business by green criteria.
- Update business license application to institutionalize collection of data.
B. Establish criteria for classifying green businesses and jobs, allowing for flexibility as new developments in green industry and business practices arise
- Research a paradigm for classification green jobs.
- Develop a detailed database of green jobs from NAICS data and municipal occupational/business licenses data.
- Add classification fields to business license forms.
12.2 Best Practices Sharing (Short-Term)
A. Recognize businesses that have received LEED, FGBC, Florida Green Lodging Program, and Ocean Friendly certifications on the city website
- Develop a system for recognizing and profiling other businesses that take steps to become more sustainable and resource efficient without pursuing costly certifications.
- Highlight best practices and the environmental, economic, and social benefits of different companies’ efforts.
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 5.1.
12.3 Green Job Development (Short-Term)
A. Become a member of Florida Local Environmental Resource Agencies (FLERA)
B. Connect unemployed and underemployed people to local green job opportunities
- Using the green business database, classify job opportunities within companies by degree of green character.
C. Partner with existing institutions and organizations like St. Petersburg College and CareerSource Pinellas to offer workforce training programs in green job skills
- Consider a green jobs tax credit to incentivize employers to create green jobs.
- Implement this program in tandem with programs and initiatives already available in Clearwater to ensure that training results in job placement.
- Promote green job opportunities in existing workforce training.
12.4 Green Guide (Short-Term)
A. Partner with tourism-based businesses and other local tourism agencies to create a green guide that promotes local businesses that commit to green practices
- Highlight high-scoring companies with green jobs from municipal license database.
B. Increase participation in green business designation programs by the hospitality industry (e.g., the Florida Green Lodging Program)
- Create designation criteria or registration program for green businesses.
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 12.1.
12.5 Regional Partnerships (Short-Term)
A. Continue to partner with local and regional organizations and focus on devising new strategies to attract green businesses to the area
- Define green business characteristics.
- Identify resources needed to accommodate green business (i.e., land, workforce, infrastructure, and utilities).
- Coordinate implementation with Strategy 12.1.
B. Leverage economic development centers to spur local economic development in the green business sector
- Target development of necessary resources to support business attraction.
12.6 Municipal Green Revolving Loan Fund (Short-Term)
A. Develop a municipal GRF to fund sustainable projects and uphold cost-effective services
- Determine the purpose and use of revolving loan funds, namely development, redevelopment, retrofit, business methods and process, materials usage, transportation, and utilities.
- Leverage the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Solution Center program to offer tools and example programs for creation of a GRF.
- Determine any capital needs or funding volume.
- Identify a revenue source.
- Earmark revenue source and budget funds.
12.7 Green Purchasing Policy (Short-Term)
A. Develop a “Green Purchasing Policy” to encourage the purchase of environmentally preferable products that mitigate the city’s environmental impact
- Consider the entire lifecycle of products in purchasing decisions.
- Evaluate and rank all municipal purchases for green alternatives.
- Calculate the cost differential in buying green.
- Calculate the social/environmental cost savings of green products to offset direct cost of buying green, if any.
B. Create procedures to help departments make the most sustainable purchases possible
Appendix III. Climate Change Science
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s Fifth Assessment Report affirms that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level.”[i] Researchers have made progress in their understanding of how the Earth’s climate is changing in space and time through improvements and extensions of numerous datasets and data analyses, broader geographical coverage, better understanding of uncertainties and a wider variety of measurements.[ii] These refinements expand upon the findings of previous IPCC Assessments – today, observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that “regional changes in temperature have had discernible impacts on physical and biological systems.”
The Fifth Assessment asserts that “it is extremely likely that more than half of the observed increase in global average surface temperature from 1951 to 2010 was caused by the anthropogenic increase in GHG concentrations and other anthropogenic forcings together. Globally, economic and population growth continued to be the most important drivers of increases in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Changes in many extreme weather and climate events have been observed since about 1950. Some of these changes have been linked to human influences, including a decrease in cold temperature extremes, an increase in warm temperature extremes, an increase in extreme high sea levels and an increase in the number of heavy precipitation events in a number of regions”.
In short, the Earth is already responding to climate change drivers introduced by mankind.
Temperatures and Extreme Events are Increasing Globally
Surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century under all assessed emission scenarios. It is very likely that heat waves will occur more often and last longer, and that extreme precipitation events will become more intense and frequent in many regions. The ocean will continue to warm and acidify, and global mean sea level to rise. Changes in many extreme weather and climate events have been observed since about 1950. Some of these changes have been linked to human influences, including a decrease in cold temperature extremes, an increase in warm temperature extremes, an increase in extreme high sea levels and an increase in the number of heavy precipitation events in a number of regions.[iii]
Climate change is projected to undermine food security. Due to projected climate change by the mid-21st century and beyond, global marine species redistribution and marine biodiversity reduction in sensitive regions will challenge the sustained provision of fisheries productivity and other ecosystem services. For wheat, rice and maize in tropical and temperate regions, climate change without adaptation is projected to negatively impact production for local temperature increases of 2°C or more above late 20th century levels, although individual locations may benefit. Global temperature increases of ~4°C or more above late 20th century levels, combined with increasing food demand, would pose large risks to food security globally. Climate change is projected to reduce renewable surface water and groundwater resources in most dry subtropical region, intensifying competition for water among sectors.
Until mid-century, projected climate change will impact human health mainly by exacerbating health problems that already exist. Throughout the 21st century, climate change is expected to lead to increases in ill-health in many regions and especially in developing countries with low income, as compared to a baseline without climate change. Health impacts include greater likelihood of injury and death due to more intense heat waves and fires, increased risks from foodborne and waterborne diseases and loss of work capacity and reduced labor productivity in vulnerable populations. Risks of undernutrition in poor regions will increase. Risks from vector-borne diseases are projected to generally increase with warming, due to the extension of the infection area and season, despite reductions in some areas that become too hot for disease vectors.
In urban areas climate change is projected to increase risks for people, assets, economies and ecosystems, including risks from heat stress, storms and extreme precipitation, inland and coastal flooding, landslides, air pollution, drought, water scarcity, sea level rise and storm surges. These risks are amplified for those lacking essential infrastructure and services or living in exposed areas. Rural areas are expected to experience major impacts on water availability and supply, food security, infrastructure and agricultural incomes, including shifts in the production areas of food and non-food crops around the world.
Climate change is projected to increase displacement of people. Populations that lack the resources for planned migration experience higher exposure to extreme weather events, particularly in developing countries with low income. Climate change can indirectly increase risks of violent conflicts by amplifying well-documented drivers of these conflicts such as poverty and economic shocks.[i]
Regional and Local Impacts
Because the impacts of climate change vary geographically. The Tampa Bay region is frequently ranked as an area with the most vulnerability to climate change risks. These risks include increased intensity of extreme weather events, heat, precipitation, sea level, and vector-borne diseases.
Numbers in ovals (Figure 3) indicate regional totals of climate change publications from 2001 to 2010, based on the Scopus bibliographic database for publications in English with individual countries mentioned in title, abstract or key words (as of July 2011). These numbers provide an overall measure of the available scientific literature on climate change across regions; they do not indicate the number of publications supporting attribution of climate change impacts in each region. Studies for polar regions and small islands are grouped with neighboring continental regions.[ii]
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Must be Reduced
Limiting risks across Reasons For Concern (a) would imply a limit for cumulative emissions of CO2 (b) which would constrain annual GHG emissions over the next few decades (c). Panel A reproduces the five Reasons For Concern. Panel b (Figure 4) links temperature changes to cumulative CO2 emissions (in GtCO2) from 1870. They are based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations (pink plume) and on a simple climate model (median climate response in 2100), for the baselines and five mitigation scenario categories (six ellipses). Panel c shows the relationship between the cumulative CO2 emissions (in GtCO2) of the scenario categories and their associated change in annual GHG emissions by 2050, expressed in percentage change (in percent GtCO2-eq per year) relative to 2010. The ellipses correspond to the same scenario categories as in Panel b, and are built with a similar method.[i]
The recent and massive buildup of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is conceivably even more extraordinary than changes observed thus far regarding temperature, sea level, and snow cover in the Northern hemisphere in that current levels greatly exceed recorded precedent going back much further than the modern temperature record.
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era driven largely by economic and population growth. From 2000 to 2010 emissions were the highest in history. Historical emissions have driven atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide to levels that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years, leading to an uptake of energy by the climate system.[ii]
In response to the problem of climate change, many communities in the United States are taking responsibility for addressing emissions at the local level. Since many of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions are directly or indirectly controlled through local policies, local governments have a strong role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions within their boundaries. Through proactive measures around land use patterns, transportation demand management, energy efficiency, green building, and waste diversion, local governments can dramatically reduce emissions in their communities. In addition, local governments are primarily responsible for the provision of emergency services and the mitigation of natural disaster impacts. While this Plan is designed to reduce overall emissions levels, as the effects of climate change become more common and severe, local government adaptation policies will be fundamental in preserving the welfare of residents and businesses.
. IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K Pachauri, and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp
. IPCC, 2014: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.